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ANDHRA PRADESH

The land where tradition and modernity live in harmony. The 'KOHINOOR of INDIA'.

Buddha at Hussain NagarGolconda FortCharminarTirumala

Andhra Pradesh, known as the "Rice Granary of India" is the favourable tourist state in India which has a coast line of 1000kms with eight of its 23 districts having direct access to the sea. Located in South India, Andhra Pradesh is bounded by Tamil Nadu in the south, Maharashtra in the North and North-West, Madhya Pradesh in the North-East, Karnataka in the West, and by the Bay of Bengal in the East. The medieval city of Hyderabad is its capital. The main languages that are spoken in Andhra are Telugu, English, Urdu, Hindi.

It uniquely combines history, beaches, mountains into a great travel destination. The state of Andhra Pradesh is recognized variously-for its legendary dynasties; for its most revered temple, Tirupati; for its beautiful language, Telugu; for its lacquer toys and beautiful weaves; rich literature and the vibrant Kuchipudi. The Places to see in Andhra Pradesh are Sri Venkateswara temple at Tirupati, Charminar, Salar Jung Museum, Golconda Fort in Hyderabad and Buddhist viharas at Nagarjunasagar. Andhra Pradesh had been an important seat of rich Buddhist heritage. Andhra Pradesh has also the largest IT park and largest Film City in Asia.

The climate is generally hot and humid. The summer temperatures vary from 20C to 40C, while in winter it is between 13C and 32C. The South-West monsoons play a major role in determining the climate of the state. The North-East monsoons are responsible for about one-third of the total rainfall in Andhra Pradesh. Best time to visit Andhra Pradesh is October to February.


NATIONAL PARKS AND WILDLIFE SANCTUARIES

 

Kasu Brahmananda Reddy National Park
Located at Jubilee hill, Hyderabad covers an area of 156.30 hectares. The park established in 1994 to safeguard the bio diversity and richness of the area, is named after late Kasu Brahmananda Reddy, the former Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh.

Mahavir Harina Vanasthali National Park
The park is located in Vanasthalipuram, on the outskirts of Hyderabad city at a distance of about 15-km on the Hyderabad- Vijayawada road. Once the Nizam's (former Hyderabadi rulers) hunting grounds, it is now home to the beautiful black bucks with their spiral horns along with several species of birds.

The Mrugavani National park
The Mrugavani National park covering an area of 3.60 sq. km ( 700 acres) was established in October, 1994 near Himayatsagar lake at a distance of 25 kms from Hyderabad.

Sri Venkateshwara National Park
Sri Venkateshwara National Park extends over two districts of Chittoor and Cuddapah of Andhra Pradesh in an area of 353.62 sq.km. The park established in October 1989, is named after Lord Venkateshwara of Tirupati. It is located in Rajampet of Cuddapah district and Chandragiri and Bailapadu of Chittoor district.

Nagarjunasagar Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary
It covers 3,560 sq km lying spread in 5 districts. You can watch panther, tiger, wild dogs, hyena, civet, jackals, wolves, giant squirrels, crocodiles, lizards, python, vipers, kraits, leopard and over 150 species of birds. A large colony of Indian pangolins can also be seen.

Srisailam has a fort and temple. The Mahakali Temple on a hill contains a rare lingam ( the Jyotirlinga, one of the 12 available in the country) which draws large crowds of pilgrims.


PEOPLE AND CUSTOMS

The general physical traits of the people of Andhra Pradesh are tall, round-headed, broad-faced, with a long arched forehead, thick and protruding noses, with straight hair and yellow skin. Certain castes of Brahmins and Kapus of Vizag district, in Andhra Pradesh have the following features which accords with the description of the sub-races of the Mediterranean belonging to the main division of Caucasoid.

The other inhabitants of the Andhra are divided into two classes. The first of them belong to the forests and hill area of the Deccan Plateau. The others belong to the extended areas of the doab between the rivers Krishna and the Godavari. The foresters answer to the description of the Australoid sub-race. The Chenchus of Srisailam hills belong to this class.

Today there are nearly 32 lakh tribals and 50 lakh nomads and other backward people in Andhra Pradesh. Their habitat spreads along the coastal and mountain strip of the Bay of Bengal from the Bhadragiri agency in Srikakulam district to the Bhadrachalam agency in Khammam and Godavari districts. From there it spreads north-east wards to the Adilabad region. This tribal area is contiguous to the tribal areas of Bastar, Dandakaranya and Vidarbha. There are about thirty-three kinds of tribals in eight districts of Andhra Pradesh. Important among them are the Khonds, Kolamis, Nayakpods, Koyas, Kondadoras, Valmikis, Bhagatas, Savaras, Jatayus, Gadabas, Yanadis and Chenchus.

In Andhra Pradesh there are certain nomadic tribes. Piccukaguntlu, Balasanta, Saradakandru, Viramushtivaru, Bavanilu, Birannalavaru, Gollasuddulu, Dasarulu, Jangamulu, Kommuvaru etc are Telugu nomads whose main occupation is ballad singing. Some of them are occupied in itinerary trade and commerce, while their womenfolk are engaged in cottage industries like making toys, baskets, mats, beads and cosmetics. They are always on the move, subject to the changes of weather and this state of living is traditional. They take suffering in their stride but they know how to seek refuge from life's worries in a native and pleasant manner.

Cultural complexities have arisen due to historical circumstances. Many foreigners of different faiths have entered Andhra Pradesh and some of them made cultural conquests through fire and sword. Others prevailed in the guise of spiritual uplift. Both these foreign elements have disrupted the continuity and peaceful life of the people and affected their tradition and culture. The Tribal Welfare and Social Welfare departments are trying to better the lot of the tribals and backward classes with educational and economic plans. Free education, hostel facilities, cottage industries, housing societies, agricultural facilities, bank loans and cooperative corporations for the marketing of forest produce like honey and herbs, are some of the ways by which it has sought to better the lives of these simple people.


LAND

With Orissa in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka in the south and Maharashtra in the west, Andhra Pradesh is the fifth largest state in India, and it forms the major link between the north and the south of India. It is the biggest and most populous state in the south of India.

There are three main regions in Andhra Pradesh -

(1) Northern Circars or coastal Andhra comprising Srikakulam, Visakhapatnam, East Godavari, West Godavari, Krishna, Guntur, Ongole and Nellore districts

(2) Rayalaseema or Ceded districts comprising Kurnool, Cuddapah, Chittoor and Anantapur districts; and

(3) Telangana comprising Khammam, Nalgonda, Warangal, Karimnagar, Medak, Nizamabad, Aadilabad, Mahbubnagar and Hyderabad districts. The Circars or Coastal districts are well developed and enjoy a greater degree of affluence than the other two regions; Rayalaseema is close to the coastal districts and here rainfall is less than in the coastal districts and drought conditions prevail sometimes, and the Telangana region is of the former princely state of Nizam's Hyderabad. The state is dotted with hill ranges from the north to the south, These hills form integral geographical entities of Andhra life and history. In the north, there are Simhachalam and Annavaram hills, in the middle country there are the Srisailam hill ranges and in the south are the Tirumalai-Tirupati hills.

The state has two great rivers, Godavari and Krishna which spring from the Western Ghats in Maharashtra and flow eastward and joins the Bay of Bengal. Besides these two big rivers, there are the Tungabhadra, the Pennar and many other small rivers and rivulets. Andhra Pradesh has considerable topographical variations with dense forest in the north east, flat paddy lands in the coastal plains, several noteworthy beaches along the Bay of Bengal and the stark boulder-strewn region around Hyderabad.


HISTORY

Andhra Pradesh is said to have been the home of the Pre- Dravidian dark coloured inhabitants. Andhra region witnessed the rule of Chandragupta Maurya during which it established itself as an independent kingdom. After Ashoka, the Mauryan empire declined giving opportunity to establish smaller kingdoms.

By the end of the third century AD the Pallavas of Kanchi put an end to the rule of the Ikshavakus. The Kakatiyas who were the feudatories of the Eastern Chalukyas became independent in about the 12th century. During the rule of Delhi Sultanate, Muslims repeatedly attempted intuition into Andhra. The Vijayanagar Kingdom also ruled independently . The city of Hyderabad was laid in 1591 by Muhammad Quli Qutub Shah. The Mughals put an end to the Qutub Shahi rule in 1687. After this the Asafjahis called Nizams emerged. They influenced Andhra Pradesh the 18th century till Andhra Pradesh was ceded to the East India Company. Gradually the whole of Andhra Pradesh except Hyderabad was under the British till 1947. In 1956 Andhra Pradesh was declared as a state.


HOW TO GET HERE

Air: The nearest airport is at Begampet, 8 km north of Abids.The capital city of Hyderabad is well connected to most major Indian cities and some overseas. Other important airports of the state include Tirupati, Vijaywada, and Vishakapatnam.

Rail: There are three train stations—Hyderabad or Nampally, Secunderabad and Kacheguda. Secunderabad is the main station from where one can get trains to all major towns/cities of the country.

Road: Of the several bus stands in Hyderabad, the main one is the Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (APSRTC) Hyderabad/Imlibun complex at Gowliguda.


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